Connect with us

Plotly chart aspect ratio

The generated charts may be embedded in dynamic web pages. By default the pie() fucntion of pyplot arranges the pies or wedges in a pie chart in counter clockwise direction. plotly is a open-source library for developing interactive visualizations. Hi, I have excel 2000 on WinXP. Because I ultimately output all of my charts to pdf's and then to gifs (in Photoshop) this change is aspect ratio is messing me up. Plotly is another libary similar to Bokeh, in that it automatically provided standard interactions. Suppose you have two images: 100x100 and 100x50 that you want to display in a figure with a buffer of 20 pixels (relative to image pixels) between them and a border of 10 pixels all around. Plotting JSON Data with Chart. More recently, with the advent of packages like sp, rgdal, and rgeos, R has been acquiring much of the functionality of traditional GIS packages (like ArcGIS One of the book provided by Packt is matplotlib Plotting Cookbook. Change the image aspect ratio via this Ratio Calculator . Information from each point should appear as you move the courser around the scatterplot. Returns-----None Examples Python For Data Science Cheat Sheet Matplotlib Learn Python Interactively at www. Plotly has many examples to learn from, though a less effective set of documentation than other libraries. ly/python/reference/#layout-scene-aspectratio For 3d plots. Highstock. The plot box aspect ratio is the relative length of the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis. "label[xyz]" Turn tick labels on for all axes, or turn them on for the specified axes and off for the remainder. It supports a limited number of charts, but unlike Google Charts it can be embedded directly in your website and made available offline. To convey a more powerful and impactful message to the viewer, you can change the look and feel of plots in R using R’s numerous plot options. The other feature brought up in this issue (coordinated zoom on subplots sharing an axis) would also need to be solved in plotly. . Banking to 45º is a reasonable heuristic for that. The colors for lines and points. Once you understood how to make a heatmap with seaborn and how to make basic customization, you probably want to control the color palette. plt. Here we’ll plot a Bar Chart for the three Species with Sepal Length using Seaborn. e. g. Towards A Large-Scale Visualization Learning and Benchmark-ing Repository. It is all hooked up with Displayr. Link to the dataset. 'equal': Ensures an aspect ratio of 1. set_aspect(’equal’) # Scale the plot size to get same aspect ratio Finally, suppose we want to zoom in on a particular region of the plot. h: the y-value(s) for horizontal line(s). window call and should give you a unitary aspect ratio. Boolean, whether to plot a frame around the graph. titles, labels, fonts, background, gridlines, and legends. If there are any negative values, they are stacked in reverse order below the chart's axis baseline. You also can control the relative lengths of one data unit along each axis (data aspect ratio). You can assign same length for height and width in your layout. It is an open source library massively used and supported by community worldwide. Example: Often, the bigger issue is to make a line chart appear reasonably neutral, without either making the changes appear too extreme (by picking an aspect ratio that is too small) or too flat (with an aspect ratio that is too high). Aspect Ratio of 16:9 ("Sixteen-by-Nine" and "Sixteen-to-Nine") which is also known as High Definition (HD) became leading aspect ratio since the start of the 21st century. It is ignored by tkplot and rglplot. First, select the 'Type' menu. do_image ( image ) [source] ¶ Replace the image. Step 2: Import the infographic into Displayr. ly /~SimonBiggs/113/bivariate-quadratic-spline-fit-using-the-  22 Feb 2016 Similar to: https://plot. As I was recently preparing a manuscript for PLOS ONE, I realized the default resolution of R and RStudio images are insufficient for publication. Plotly has many examples to learn from, though a - Banking to 45 degrees: choose an aspect ratio so the magnitude of the important slopes is close to 45 degrees. Dear all, this should be trivial, but I couldn't figure out how to solve it I would like to have a plot with fixed aspect ratio of 1. Chart Studio. Laying out multiple plots on a page Baptiste Auguié 2019-07-13. I have a simple chart that I have physically sized to have an aspect ratio of 1:1 (i. plot: how to fix the ratio of the plot box?. The aspect ratio of a graph is the ratio of the height to the width of the 16:9 Aspect Ratio. My 4 colunm is an array of 1 and 0 and I wanted to set the color of my scatterplot 3D acoording to my 4 column. Commonly used graphical parameters are: . Moreover, it is possible to take a ggplot2 plot and wrap it in Plotly in order to make it interactive. You need to use the aspectmode option in the Layout object. Aspect ratio of each facet, so that aspect * height gives the width of each facet in inches. ). layout = Layout( scene=dict( aspectmode='data' )) figure = Figure(data=data,  def talk_times(self): """Returns a plotly graph showing chat habits by hour of the day Layout( title='', width=800, height=800, legend = dict( x = . This parameter is a shortcut for explicitly calling Axes. There are already tons of tutorials on how to make basic plots in matplotlib. Calculate the Aspect Ratio (ARC) here by entering your in pixel or ratio . , xaxis. We can do this by changing the axis limits (again before plt. js. Set aspect ratio modes to "manual" for rotation without stretching. Aspect ratio plotly. 16:9 (1. Overview. Hover over the points in the plot below. Here is an See example here https://plot. In some cases, to avoid overly large plots or plots with unappealing aspect ratios, I would display When generating a plot with custom text, the text is provided as an  The plot box aspect ratio is the relative length of the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis. I love to cook, so thinking about aspect ratio in terms of cooking helps me visualize what these numbers mean. Is there a lzo-rle compression implementation available in C for user space? Is there a lzo-rle compression implementation available in C for user space? How to change size of Matplotlib plot How to delete all lines of file in Vim How to mount remote directory on Windows using SSHFS-Win Python: Checking Type of Variable How to set C or C++ compiler for CMake Archives 3. markers : matplotlib marker code or list of marker codes, optional Markers for the scatterplot. Percentage of width allows you to change the aspect ratio, Pixels is an absolute measure, and Percentage of parent allows you to set the height in relation to the parent container. For pie plots it’s best to use square figures, i. The text is released under the CC-BY-NC-ND license, and code is released under the MIT license. The data for each each series can originate from a different data source. , only a subset of brushing features are supported when linking to other crosstalk-compatible htmlwidgets). for impedance data display) For some data, it is crucial to display the x-and y-axis on the same scale, with one unit scale having the exact same length in both directions. coord_polar() It uses polar coordinates. update_layout( margin=dict(l=20, r=20, t=20, b=20),  library(plotly) m <- list( l = 50, r = 50, b = 100, t = 100, pad = 4 ) p <- plot_ly(x = seq (0, 8), y = seq(0, 8)) %>% layout(autosize = F, width = 500, height = 500,  15 Jul 2014 (2) is a no so good, because the concepts of aspect ratio and size https://plot. It is also possible to take a ggplot2 plot and wrap it in Plotly in order to make it interactive. That's a very impressive first R graph, by the away. Supply 0 here if you don't want to give an aspect ratio. This tutorial provides several examples of plots that can be created with the matplotlib scientific plotting package. However, when I use the ggplotly function the aspect ratio, previously fixed for the gplot chart, is lost. Previous parts in this series: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5. When the max Y value on the chart increases, the max Y tick changes appropriately, but the X max tick doesn't change, so the aspect ratio of the plot is no longer 1:1. scaleanchor) and also consider using plotly_empty() over plot_ly() to hide axis labels, ticks, and the background grid. When you plot one number against another, you are comparing two numbers; the resulting chart is analogous to a Cartesian chart, with x and y coordinates. js is a open-source, light-weight (~11KB) library based on the HTML5 canvas control. Here is a tutorial. It defines its overall shape, and it is usually presented as W:H (where W is the width, and H is the height). In this tutorial, we have created scatter, line, bar, and pie charts with Matplotlib library. Figure: Pie chart. And that reminded me: We have to watch out for the chart aspect ratio. Drawing a simple Pie Chart using Python Matplotlib . In this book, you can find any kind of plotting type. . In order to take the image your camera produced at a 3:2 aspect ratio and print it in a size that has a different aspect ratio you’ll need to crop part of the photo off. If there are fewer colors than points they are recycled in the standard fashion. 29 Jan 2017 Is there a way to force the aspect ratio of a plotly 2D plot to be square? If yes, what is the exact syntax? How to manipulate the graph size in Python with Plotly. Bootstrap 3. 1. imshow() will automatically adjust the axis aspect ratio to match the input Plotly is the eponymous open source product of the Plotly company, and is  Say column header width is more then the column data width, that should be used. For a long time, R has had a relatively simple mechanism, via the maps package, for making simple outlines of maps and plotting lat-long points and paths on them. What I am wondering though is, whether I can change the height of the figure depending on the auto-detected width? Some figures of mine need a certain aspect ratio for their height:width. Different options for different output formats. - `lattice` uses the `aspect` argument. Latex, we do not mention Word here). js via this "Axis Constraints" PR - plotly/plotly. An individual ggplot object contains multiple pieces – axes, plot panel(s), titles, legends –, and their layout is defined and enforced via the gtable package, itself built around the lower-level grid package. One reader, Aleksey Nozdryn-Plotnicki, commented that changing the dimensions of the chart can have the same effect. 1 Getting Started By default, the graphs are 480x480 pixels in size, at a resolution of 72 dpi (6. 0. You provide the data, tell ggplot2 how to map variables to aesthetics, what graphical primitives to use, and it takes care of the details. js API to make efficient updates in shiny apps via plotlyProxy(). The following options affect the appearance of tick marks. Specify ratio as a three-element vector of positive values that represent the ratio of the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis lengths. "tic[xyz]" Turn tick marks on for all axes, or turn them on for the specified axes and off for the remainder. Making Maps with R Intro. Questions. All TVs sold today have an aspect ratio of 16:9, which means that if the width is divided into 16 equal parts, the height of the TV or picture should be 9 parts. There is the potential that a call using ylim and xlim could conflict with an aspect ratio scpecification and the asp should "prevail". It is a general plot that allows you to aggregate the categorical data based off some function, by default the mean. Choosing line chart aspect ratios • 2: multi scale banking to 45 (2006) – frequency domain analysis to find ratios • FFT the data, convolve with Gaussian to smooth – find interesting spikes/ranges in power spectrum • cull nearby regions if similar, ensure overview – create trend curves (red) for each aspect ratio 22 A numeric constant, it gives the asp parameter for plot, the aspect ratio. Polar coordinates reveal interesting connections between a bar chart and a Coxcomb chart. A stacked bar chart is a bar chart that places related values atop one another. forceClipregion Jan 29, 2017 Is there a way to force the aspect ratio of a plotly 2D   The generic plot() function is often the fastest way to create static maps from . Matplotlib is a great solution for scientific plotting in a Linux environment given its natural integration with Python and NumPy, its ability to be automated, and its production of a wide variety of customizable high quality plots. The chart aspect ratio. This is generally due to the plot size or dimensions not being able to properly allocate space for the graphic components. a, b: the intercept and slope, single values. 30 Jan 2018 And, even when conversion from ggplot2 to plotly 'works' it can leave all the geo-spatial information, both plot() and geom_sf() just workTM. Orientation of the plot (vertical or pygooglechart is a Python interface to the Google Chart API. However, one aspect where it falls short is in the statistics you can see for your articles. Is there a way to force the aspect ratio of a plotly 2D plot to be square? If yes, what is the exact syntax? DAR is also known as image aspect ratio and picture aspect ratio, though the latter can be confused with pixel aspect ratio. It sets the aspect ratio correctly for maps. aspect: {'equal', 'auto'} or float, optional. The default is for Matplotlib to use a sans-serif font for describing the text and marking up the plot, with a different font for Maths mark-up . set_aspect('equal') on the returned axes object. 28055; Members. It’s all about plotting your graph with matplotlib. width specified by you. The pie chart is generated with the pie() function. embed-responsive and an aspect ratio class modifier like . Controls the aspect ratio of the axes. You can create the figure with equal width and height, or force the aspect ratio to be equal after plotting by calling ax. Starting from live curve, points, bar chart, pie chart, histograms, and other types of graph. Fixed Ratio Axes¶ The scaleanchor and scaleratio axis properties can be used to force a fixed ratio of pixels per unit between two axes. Here is an example of anchoring the scale of the x and y axis with a scale ratio of 1. highcharter and R wrapper for highcharts. Sure, you can go to the stats page, but all you get to see is some plain numbers and a bar chart in an awful shade of green. You’ll learn also how to create a movie of your 3D scene in R. It provides a number of “standard” interactions (pop-up labels, drag to pan, select to zoom, etc) automatically. It looked great. Increasing the resolution will increase the size (in pixels) of the text and graph elements. import plotly. The cowplot package is a simple add-on to ggplot. Themes are a powerful way to customize the non-data components of your plots: i. ggplot2 is a system for declaratively creating graphics, based on The Grammar of Graphics. js#1522 - which enables optional fixed aspect ratio on zoom. embed-responsive-item class. This time, I’m going to focus on how you can make beautiful data visualizations in Python with matplotlib. The power of stacked line charts Now we are going to change the layer size/aspect ratio and turn off the XY axes and its frame. embed-responsive-16by9 (more listed below). The aspect ratio is the ratio between the width and the height of a display. The options for figure sizing also depend on the output format (HTML vs. show). 66x6. My SAS colleague Prashant Hebbar wrote a nice article about how to use the GTL to specify the aspect ratio of a graph so that the median absolute slope Not the chart itself, but the white "pasteboard" that is behind it. Height unit. show): plt. Details. orient: “v” | “h”, optional. First of all, you need to load EBImage package from bioconductor and gridExtra package. Parameters-----image : str Generated by ``savefig`` from matplotlib with ``format=svg``. ly/python/axes/#fixed-ratio-axes. Scatterplot Using plotly. The below python code example draws a pie chart using the pie() function. 42; HOT QUESTIONS. frame. @cpsievert right, this has to be done in the js library itself for the aspect ratio to survive nearly all our interactivity. Make sure the graph window is active and select Format:Layer to open the Plot Details - Layer Properties dialog, first go to the Size/Speed tab and change the values in Layer Area as below: ggplot2 does not support drawing image files by default, but it is easy to draw images for background using ggplot2. See there for further details. 8, y = 1), xaxis  Plotly library: Plotly's Python graphing library makes interactive, publication- quality graphs online. With highcharter you can use the highstock library which include sophisticated navigation options like a small navigator series, preset date ranges, date picker, scrolling and panning. Create an account in Displayr, and then click the button that says + Add New. The width of the chart in pixels or as a percentage, based on the Width unit setting. But I personally find them distracting and many casual users get confused. This aspect ratio modifier will add the padding-top with different percentages depending on the given modifier class, then give your iframe the . 66 inches). As always, you can find React gantt chart component demo on GitHub. Examples of how to make line plots, scatter plots, area charts,  If at any time you need access to the underlying plotly representation of an object . set_aspect. This R tutorial describes, step by step, how to build a 3D graphic using R software and the rgl package. One big feature is the linked brushing framework, which works best when linking plotly together with other plotly graphs (i. Plotly is a major thought leader in data science right now. The right-most icon pops up a window which allows you to specify an output file for the plot. box which ensures your aspect ratios are always correct and also makes it easy  The diagonal Axes are treated differently, drawing a plot to show the univariate distribution of the data Aspect * height gives the width (in inches) of each facet. In particular, the plotly package converts any ggplot to an interactive plot. buildo/react-autosize-textarea A textarea perfectly . You can control the relative lengths of the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis (plot box aspect ratio). Another is the ability to leverage the plotly. Part of this issue is solved in the latest version of plotly. Cleveland suggested that practitioners should use "banking to 45 degrees" as a rule-of-thumb that improves perception of the rate-of-change in the plot. The label to be written on top of the color key. Stacked bar charts are typically used when a category naturally divides into components. First, let me explain the basics of aspect ratios and print dimensions Common Photo Aspect Ratios 4 x 6 Aspect Ratio Most digital images, shot in camera and before any cropping occurs in post, have an aspect ratio of around 4 : 6 / 2 : 3. pbaspect(ratio) sets the plot box aspect ratio for the current axes. Since 2010 it has become the most common aspect ratio for televisions and computer monitors, and is also the international standard format of HDTV, Full HD, non-HD digital television and analog widescreen television. the height=width). untf: logical asking whether to untransform. def do_image (self, image): """Replace the image. main. Set the default configuration for plotly. This is very important if you draw a map. The other day I reviewed a dashboard. preserve_aspect_ratio (bool, optional) – If True it preserves the aspect ratio otherwise it will stretch to fill up the space available. But there was a chart on the bottom that just did not make any sense. The plotly package adds additional functionality to plots produced with ggplot2. I suppose you're right that having different aspect ratios on different subplots is an unusual case, but having some subplots that want a fixed ratio and others that don't seems like a fairly common case, at which point we've nearly arrived at each one supporting its own Using asp=1 as a parameter to plot will get interpreted by the low-level plot. The pixel aspect calculator makes it extremely easy to change any "W:H" format with custom a width or height. This is where stacked line charts come in handy. plotly as py. the scale bar, margins and aspect ratios, while the color settings covered in the a level of interactivity when printed using the function ggplotly() from the plotly   %matplotlib inline will lead to static images of your plot embedded in the notebook plt. v: the x-value(s) for vertical line(s). float : A numeric value will scale the ratio of plot width to plot height; "equal"  9 Jul 2018 import plotly. You can add additional data series in the Chart properties tab. The aspect is of particular relevance for images since it may distort the image, i. It's possible to change these settings by specifying the font and text properties: the common aspects to define are the font type, weight, style, size and colour. a figure aspect ratio 1. Putting more than one image in a figure¶. 7 7:1 = 4 2:3 2) is an aspect ratio with a width of 16 units and height of 9. Defaults to FALSE. Summary. Equalizing x-and y-axis aspect ratio to 1:1 (e. Overall title for the main plot. This is the 6th post in a series attempting to recreate the figures in Lattice: Multivariate Data Visualization with R (R code) with ggplot2. Trusted by thousands of online investors across the globe, StockCharts makes it easy to create the web's highest-quality financial charts in just a few simple clicks. Getting Started with Lattice Graphics Deepayan Sarkar lattice is an add-on package that implements Trellis graphics (originally developed for S and S-PLUS) in R. So, I have 4 columns and I assigned the first 3 to the x,y,z labels of a scatterplot3d in plotly python. Measures contain continuous numerical data. coord_quickmap() sets the aspect ratio correctly for maps. The basic idea [SOLVED] Scatter charts -- can I lock in a 1:1 aspect ratio for axes? I most often create scatter charts, but really want to lock the aspect ratio between the x and y axes. Issue here: plotly/plotly. col. The autopct is responsible for displaying percentages in the chart's wedges. An almost useless chart - What are the margins again? For data sets containing just two different units of measure, we could alternatively consider a dual axis graph. ) Bar Chart: Bar Chart or Bar Plot is used to represent categorical data with vertical or horizontal bars. There’s no in-depth analysis of any kind and no way to make sense of the data generated by your articles. com Matplotlib DataCamp Learn Python for Data Science Interactively Prepare The Data Also see Lists & NumPy The Matplotlib defaults that usually don’t speak to users are the colors, the tick marks on the upper and right axes, the style,… The examples above also makes another frustration of users more apparent: the fact that working with DataFrames doesn’t go quite as smoothly with Matplotlib, which can be annoying if you’re doing exploratory analysis with Pandas. Jan 10, 2016 : KTown : 9 minute read Chart. This is an excerpt from the Python Data Science Handbook by Jake VanderPlas; Jupyter notebooks are available on GitHub. DataCamp. RGL is a 3D graphics package that produces a real-time interactive 3D plot. Making Faceted Heatmaps with ggplot2 posted in ggplot , R on 2016-02-14 by hrbrmstr We were doing some exploratory data analysis on some attacker data at work and one of the things I was interested is what were “working hours” by country. Themes can be used to give plots a consistent customized look. See the markets more clearly, improve your portfolio management, and find promising new opportunities faster than ever before. Pie charts can be drawn using the function pie() in the pyplot module. Lead Data Scientist @ Goji Auto Insurance Plotly was the big business intelligence killer we'd been waiting for. But what it is not is a general principle that guarantees a good how to make a "grouped" and "stacked" barplot? You'd probably want to control the aspect ratio of the result, though, since the default panels will be thin and Data source. As a result, it was very difficult to use it appropriately. Every aspect of a plotly chart (the colors, the grid-lines, the data, and so on) has a corresponding key in these call signatures. axis('equal') We set an equal aspect ratio so that the pie is drawn as a circle. Static/Dynamic: Choose whether there is a fixed number of data series (lines, for example), or whether the number of data series is variable and will be decided by the app. js#1549 I have a ggplot hexbin chart that I want to show with ggplotly. Draw the heatmap with the mask and correct aspect ratio We will be using choropleth graph to visualize the GDP across the globe. Visual comparisons. Comparing two different aspect ratios poses some subtleties – when comparing two aspect ratios, one may compare images with equal height, equal width, equal diagonal, or equal area. See Details. Various image formats are available as well as postscript, encapsulated postscript, and PDF. How can I change the aspect ratio of letters in a plot? chart title in plotly (R) Stacked bar charts. axes(). Set the page size to the same aspect ratio as the PNG file (Home > Page Layout > Layout > Page Size > Custom). - This usually requires the horizontal axis to be longer than the vertical axis. 16 by Carson Sievert fillFrame: if we DO autosize, do we fill the container or the screen? logo on the end of the modebar; plot3dPixelRatio: increase the pixel ratio for 3D plot images   7 Nov 2016 I ended up using the R plotly library, which worked well. It is a powerful and elegant high-level data visualization system, with an emphasis on multivariate data, that is su cient for typical graphics needs, and is also It’s been well over a year since I wrote my last tutorial, so I figure I’m overdue. The calculations, charting, and automatic text-writing are performed using the R language. The primary data set used is from the student survey of this course, but some plots are shown that use textbook data sets. aspect ratio to be equal with the following command (placed before plt. PLOS ONE requires 300 ppi images in TIFF or EPS (encapsulated postscript) format. For an example, going from a 3:2 ratio (4×6) to an 8×10 size (which is a 5:4 ratio), you’ll need to crop off two inches. Controling the aspect ratio: - For `base` graphics use the `asp` argument to `plot`. graph_objs as go. Multiple colors can be specified so that each point can be given its own color. You can find all the documentation for changing the look and feel of base graphics in the Help page ?par(). It is the international standard format of HDTV, non-HD digital television and analog widescreen television PALplus. Notice how the zoom box is constrained to prevent the distortion of the shape of the line plot. Defaults to 1. Be Awesome in ggplot2: A Practical Guide to be Highly Effective - R software and data visualization Basics ggplot2 is a powerful and a flexible R package , implemented by Hadley Wickham , for producing elegant graphics. y="tip", facet_col="sex", width=800, height=400) fig. Now you have a one-mark scatter plot: Drag the Category dimension to Color on the Marks card. Does anyone know how Excel "decides" what shape the pasteboard is going to be? Note that the aspect ratio is based on the fig. Question: Chromosome Plot In R. Tools used to create an interactive infographic: Canva is used to create the base infographic. From plotly v2. Occasionally, R graphics will come out distorted or certain parts will be missing (legends, lines, etc. Any idea on how to do that? If that doesn’t work, I would like to manually set the width and height, and then center th If and when you use add_polygons() to draw a map, make sure you fix the aspect ratio (e. It was way too long and stretched out. See here. Control Ratio of Axis Lengths and Data Unit Lengths. to some kind of signal Plotly. In CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Proceedings (CHI 2019), May 4–9, 2019, Glasgow, Scotland Chapter 2 R ggplot2 Examples Bret Larget February 5, 2014 Abstract This document introduces many examples of R code using the ggplot2 library to accompany Chapter 2 of the Lock 5 textbook. Clicking the 'See a basic example' option will show what a sample chart looks like after adding data and editing with the style. coord_polar() uses polar Various icons are displayed at the bottom of the window which allow you to manipulate the plot in various ways such as zooming in, changing the aspect ratio, etc. %matplotlib . In the first example we simply hand the plot function two vectors. Hovering the mouse over the chart type icon will display three options: 1) Charts like this by Chart Studio users 2) View tutorials on this chart type 3) See a basic example. Helping colleagues, teams, developers, project managers, directors, innovators and clients understand and implement computer science since 2009. WHIFF includes built in support for generating Adobe Flash chart widgets using either the amCharts charting package or the Open Flash Chart package. This is a crucial step since the message provided by your heatmap can be different following the choice you make. 2+, use the predefined class . It provides various features that help with creating publication-quality figures, such as a set of themes, functions to align plots and arrange them into complex compound figures, and functions that make it easy to annotate plots and or mix plots with images. pixel will not be square. plotly chart aspect ratio

zd, ds, 8g, 7a, 9o, g7, 27, ru, 5c, rl, fq, ed, va, eq, wr, v8, gu, ku, rb, ld, t0, wf, ir, pp, jc, ar, pj, f6, yr, 69, dp,